Research papers - Ecology

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Autori: Štimac, Igor; Vince, Damir; Jakšić, Bruna

Godina objave: 2013.

Sažetak: -

Summary: In the era of increased awareness surrounding global warming and the importance of renewable energy, airports are affected by the rising costs of fossil fuels, as well as by the demands for the reduction of greenhouse gases emission. This paper reports the effort to determine the benefits of replacing gasoline and diesel-fueled internal combustion engine ground support equipment (ICE GSE) with electric ground support equipment (eGSE). The model of environment-friendly aircraft handling will be based on the examination of cost-effectiveness and reduction of greenhouse gases in the case of replacing fossil-fueled GSE with cleaner, more efficient electric-powered alternatives. In comparison with the current procedures of Ground Handling, the authors choose Zagreb Airport Ltd. as the representative airport for building Case Study and Airbus A319/A320 as the reference aircraft for calculation of greenhouse gases emission during handling process. The calculation method will be based on real time duration of processes performed by each piece of GSE during aircraft handling procedure. The usage of the model will be tested on aircraft handling for two airline business models: network and low cost. This research will show for the first time the relation between environmentally friendly procedures and vehicles, costs and increase in effectiveness during Aircraft Ground Handling.

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Autori: Štimac, Igor; Vidović, Andrija; Sorić, Vedran

Godina objave: 2011.

Sažetak: -

Summary: The development of turbo-jet engines resulted in the construction of larger, safer and faster aircraft. High power of the turbo-jet engine contributes to the increase of noise level and, in general, to the increase in the number of aircraft which produce noise. Noise created by aircraft on the ground refers to take-off, landing and taxing on the ground. The maximum influence of noise is in the area close to airports and under the landing and take-off flight paths. Investigations of noise produced by aircraft began in the late fifties of the last century in order to explore the characteristics of noise sources, environmental impact on its spread and the subjective human perception of noise. Defining noise levels must be done by noise measuring systems, which is specified for that kind of aircraft noise. Noise measurements must include all the elements influencing on the formation and expansion in air traffic noise. The measurement and research conducted at Zagreb Airport and area around it, except information about the negative impact of noise on the surrounding population, showed that by measuring noise, and visualizing the frequency spectrum of noise, it can be possible to determine the model of aircraft. Furthermore, it is shown that by using the frequency spectrum it is possible (with further research) to make an insight into the potential failure of an approaching aircraft. The result can be manifested in increasing of further air traffic safety, reducing maintenance costs and longer exploitation of an aircraft.

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Autori: Štimac, Igor; Jakšić, Zoran; Bucak, Tino; Novak, Doris; Jambrošić, Kristian

Godina objave: 2009.

Sažetak: -

Summary: Aircraft industry has lately expressed an increased interest in environment hence it has become a foundation for all business related to airport construction and expansion, creating new or modifying existing aircraft arrival and departure corridors, as well as for choosing aircraft fleet. Prominent ecological segments in air traffic are aircraft noise and air contamination from aircraft exhausts. This paper studies noise problems in the area of main airport in the Republic of Croatia, through continuous 24/7 measurements, analysis of noise results, recommendations of new procedures and change of corridors in arrival or departure. The most important thing is that all research results were reached by synergy of professional team formed of members from Zagreb Airport, Croatian Air Navigation Services, Faculty of Transport and Traffic Sciences and Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing. The paper contains original data generated by measuring and analyzing of aircraft noise, so it can be said it is the main foundation for further researches aiming to reduction of air traffic noise.

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Autori:Novak, Doris; Bucak, Tino; Jakšić, Zoran; Štimac, Igor

Godina objave: 2008.

Sažetak: -

Summary: This paper is based on the analysis of the data collected in a series of trail flights by Airbus 319 aircraft of the Croatian flag carrier Croatia Airlines. The measurements were carried out in real conditions, using internal sensors onboard (Flight Data Recorder) and independent GPS system. Two types of approach were tested: Continuous Descent Approach (CDA) and Step Down Approach, and a comparison of real and calculated data was carried out regarding flight performances, fuel consumption i.e. savings, and thus also of the reduction in exhaust emissions generated by aircraft engines. In accordance with different approach angles (descent gradients), engine power, landing configuration and required altitude and speed corrections the noise footprint on the ground and in the space around the aircraft have been developed. Also, a comparative analysis of the noise level at the critical point on the ground, which is located at the Intermediate Approach Fix has been done. Based on the test results and in-flight checks, the operational procedures for approach regarding Croatia Airlines corporate recommendations shall be stipulated, with the aim of reducing the emissions and noise during approach phase of flight.

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Autori:Štimac, Igor; Vidović, Andrija; Sorić, Vedran

Godina objave: 2008.

Sažetak: -

Summary: With the increase in the number of flights and in accordance with the expansion of airports, air traffic is becoming a serious problem of the present times. In spite of the tendency to integrate maximally air traffic into all the ecological aspects, one of the main problems today is the noise generated by aircraft engines. These engines generate vortex, exhaust gases at high speeds, whereas in supersonic aircraft there is the additional thunder due to the impact waves produced during take-off and landing of the aircraft. The aircraft noise-related problems will have to be solved by certain alternatives, such as the replacement of the existing aircraft fleet by new generations of aircraft or by fitting the aircraft with hush-kits and other special parts or by using new, alternative procedures in landing and taking off. This paper will deal with procedure model of Continuous Descent Approach (CDA) on Zagreb Airport. Due to the expansion of the city and nearby villages, implementation of such a system on Zagreb Airport could be cost efficient for the airport itself as well as for the airlines that use the airport. It would reduce the bad influence of noise on human health in those, ecologically critical surroundings. Apart from noise reduction, the usage of this system would decrease fuel consumption of aircrafts which would directly reduce exploitation costs of an aircraft.

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Autori: Štimac, Igor; Sorić, Vedran; Bucak, Tino

Godina objave: 2007.

Sažetak: -

Summary: With the increase in the number of flights and in accordance with the expansion of airports, air traffic is becoming a serious problem of the present times. In spite of the tendency to integrate maximally air traffic into all the ecological aspects, one of the main problems today is the noise generated by aircraft engines. These engines generate vortex, exhaust gases at high speeds, whereas in supersonic aircraft there is the additional thunder due to the impact waves produced during take-off and landing of the aircraft. It is important to know the magnitude that defines the noise, and the values within which they have to stay in order to comply with the valid regulations. The aircraft noise-related problems will have to be solved by certain alternatives, such as the replacement of the existing aircraft fleet by new generations of aircraft or by fitting the aircraft with hush-kits and other special parts. The solutions related to aircraft generated noise reduction can be sought also in the take-off and landing processes, navigation and adequate use of land, i.e. by creating non-populated green areas around the airports. This work deals with the impact and measuring of aircraft noise and detailed analyses of the results which may be used to determine the areas under the negative impact of noise. In this way, the endangering of the health of the population in these ecologically critical regions may be directly prevented.

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Autori:Štimac, Igor; Ivanišević, Jurica; Sviben, Zlatko

Godina objave: 2006.

Sažetak: -

Summary: The increase in the number of flights makes air traffic a serious problem of the present. Modern, jet aircraft generate deafening noise in the approach and takeoff of aircraft. Noise is generated by aircraft engines letting out at high speed vortex exhaust gases, and in case of supersonic aircraft there is additional thunder due to impact waves that follow takeoff or landing of aircraft. In order to solve the problem of aircraft noise, some alternative solutions will have to be implemented, such as replacement of the current air fleet by a new generation of aircraft or some immediate solutions such as the installation of hush-kits and some special parts in the aircraft, which also affects the reduction of aircraft noise. Fast development of airports, resulting in problems related to noise, require finding of ways in which to harmonize development, modernization of air traffic and the “potential noisy adversaries” that occur as a consequence of the technological development of airports. It is interesting to know the values that define the noise as well as the values within which they range, according to the valid regulations. In this way other traffic participants can understand the environment and take the attitude of an active participant – define themselves to the measure of the human.

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Autori: Štimac, Igor; Vidović, Andrija; Vince, Damir

Godina objave: 2011.

Sažetak: Danas kada se velika pažnja posvećuje zaštiti okoliša i ekologiji, jedan od glavnih negativnih elemenata prisutnih u svakom dijelu čovjekova okoliša pa tako i u prometu jest buka. Zračni promet najmlađa je grana prometa, koja se počela naglo razvijati pedesetih godina prošlog stoljeća i za njen nagli rast zaslužno je uvođenje turbo-mlaznih motora. Uvođenje tih motora u zrakoplovstvo rezultiralo je gradnjom većih, sigurnijih i bržih zrakoplova. S obzirom na veliku snagu turbo-mlaznih motora, kao popratni efekt pojavila se buka, a naglim povećanjem zračnog prometa buka je postala učestala i nesnošljiva. Zrakoplov kao izvor buke koja se odražava na zemlji stvara buku u nekoliko segmenata: polijetanje, slijetanje i vožnja zrakoplova po tlu. Najveća razina buke vezane uz zračni promet generira se u blizini zračnih luka te u području iznad prilaznih i odlaznih putanja. Istraživanja izvora i prevencije buke koju stvaraju zrakoplovi započinju krajem pedesetih godina prošlog stoljeća. Ciljevi istraživanja su analiziranje značajki izvora buke, utjecaja okoliša na njeno širenje i subjektivnog ljudskog doživljavanja iste.

Summary: -

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Autori: Drljača, Miroslav

Godina objave: 2005.

Sažetak: Obzirom na kvalitetu prostora u okruženju Zračne luke Zagreb i činjenice da se nalazi na vodozaštitnom području Male Mlake i Črnkovca, da je okružena vrijednim spomenicima kulture lociranim u: 1) zoni pojedinačnog nepokretnog kulturnog dobra, 2) zoni povijesne cjeline, 3) zoni zaštićenog okoliša kulturnog dobra i 4) prostorne međe zaštićenog kulturnog dobra (rimsko naselje Andautonija, drvena kapelica Ranjenog Isusa na Plesu, drvena kapelica Sv. Barbare u Velikoj Mlaki, kurija Josipović u Kurilovcu, Turopoljska vijećnica u Velikoj Gorici, župni dvor Velika Mlaka, dvorac Lukavec u Lukavcu) te obzirom na raznolikost flore i faune u neposrednom i daljem okruženju od kojih su mnoge biljne i životinjske vrste zaštićene zakonom te činjenice da u bližem okruženju zračne luke živi oko 100.000 stanovnika, Zračna luka Zagreb d.o.o. svoje razvojne planove morala je osmisliti na principima održivog razvoja.

Summary: -

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Autori: Drljača, Miroslav

Godina objave: 2010.

Sažetak: -

Summary: Requests of interested parties, amongst which the customer has the central position, are starting points of quality management system that complies with requirements of ISO 9000ff and ISO 14000ff international norms. Regardless of the fact whether we want to arrange management system to meet the requirements of these norms, one should be able to recognize exact requests of interested parties. Classic structural model of organization must be upgraded through developed, documented and implemented processes. Processes are one of structural elements of each management system, and environmental management system, too. Scientists and experts do not agree about generally accepted methodology of process modelling.

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Autori: Drljača, Miroslav; Vrbanc, Mirela; Bernacchi, Žaklina

Godina objave: 2005.

Sažetak: Buka koju stvaraju zrakoplovi jedan je od glavnih ekoloških kriterija vezanih za međunarodno komercijalno zrakoplovstvo. Republika Hrvatska kao punopravna članica Međunarodne organizacije za civilno zrakoplovstvo (ICAO), nakon procesa osamostaljenja, zatekla se u kašnjenju s primjenom pooštrenih međunarodnih normi dopuštene razine buke koju stvaraju zrakoplovi. Današnji promet Zračne luke Zagreb od 33.000 zrakoplovnih operacija godišnje, predstavlja značajan izvor buke za okolno područje. Obzirom da se Zračna luka Zagreb opredijelila za sustav upravljanje okolišem sukladno zahtjevima međunarodne norme ISO 14001:1996, logična je odluka o implementaciji sustava za mjerenje razine buke. Pozitivni efekt implementacije ovog sustava ogledat će se kroz utvrđivanje područja zaštite od buke, te uvođenje naplate za buku zrakoplovnim prijevoznicima koji će prekoračivati dopuštenu razinu, s krajnjim ciljem motivacije da koriste zrakoplove niže razine buke. Obzirom na razvojnu komponentu Zračne luke Zagreb i povećanje prometa, autori su mišljenja da fenomenu buke treba posvetiti pažnju i u ekološkom smislu s prijedlozima mogućih aktivnosti za smanjenje negativnih učinaka buke na okoliš.

Summary: Aviation noise is one of the main ecological criteria connected to the International Commercial Aviation. After the process of independence, Republic of Croatia, valid member of an International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), found itself in delay with the implementation of intense international norms for the permitted aviation noise level. Present traffic at the Zagreb Airport reaches almost 33.000 aircarft operations per year, creating a big noise source for the surrounding area. Since Zagreb Airport committed itself to follow environmental protection measures and environmental management system according to ISO 14001:1996 norm requirements its next logical step would be that of implementing noise monitoring system. The positive effect of such implementation will be see trough the determination of noise protected areas and the enforcement of noise charge. The main objective of such measures is to force aircraft companies to use lower noise level aircrafts. Due to the progress and growing rate of traffic at the Zagreb Airport, the authors find it imperative to recognize activities and undertake preliminary measures in order to lower noise level and its ecologically negative influences to the environment.

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Autori: Drljača, Miroslav

Godina objave: 2009.

Sažetak: Zahtjevi zainteresiranih strana, pri čemu centralno mjesta ima kupac, polazište su sustava upravljanja kvalitetom sukladno zahtjevima međunarodne norme ISO 9000ff i ISO 14000ff. Bez obzira na to želimo urediti sustav upravljanja sukladno zahtjevima ovih normi kako bi bio sposoban prepoznati stvarne zahtjeve zainteresiranih strana. Klasični model organizacijske structure mora biti poboljšan razvijenim, dokumentiranim i implementiranim poslovnim procesima. Oni su jedan od strukturnih elemenata svakog sustava upravljanja među kojima i sustava upravljanja okolišem. Među znanstvenicima i stručnjacima nema suglasja oko opće prihvaćene metodologije modeliranja poslovnih procesa.

Summary: Requests of interested parties, amongst which the customer has the central position, are starting points of quality management system that complies with requirements of ISO 9000ff and ISO 14000ff international norms. Regardless of the fact whether we want to arrange management system to meet the requirements of these norms, one should be able to recognize exact requests of interested parties. Classic structural model of organization must be upgraded through developed, documented and implemented processes. Processes are one of structural elements of each management system, and environmental management system, too. Scientists and experts do not agree about generally accepted methodology of process modelling. 

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